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The AIB is proud to publish the Residual Mixes and European Attribute Mix of 2018. Similar to last year the calculation was carried out by Grexel Systems Ltd. on its behalf, assisted by Ostfoldforskning and Ecoinvent.

A residual mix is needed for reliable disclosure of electricity consumption where Guarantees of Origin (or in some cases other legally accepted tracking instruments) are not used. Due to the international nature of both the power market and the Guarantee of Origin (GO) market, centrally calculated residual mixes and the European Attribute Mix is needed. Energy authorities use the results of the calculation either directly or to calculate the residual mix for their respective country using national rules.

» Figure 1: Final Residual Mixes 2018

The complete results of the calculation can be found below.

The presence and use of a reliably calculated Residual Mix makes the entire disclosure system trustworthy, by determining and correctly disclosing to consumers who are purchasing a non-specific type of electricity. The concept of Residual Mix is also recognized by the “Clean Energy for All Europeans” Package currently being debated by the EU Commission, Parliament and Council.

To avoid so-called “expanding” of energy origin in all cases where GOs are exported, a coordinated European Attribute Mix needs to be calculated and applied. This is why AIB’s coordination of the EAM calculation complements the HUB service of the AIB extremely well: it informs countries of the origin of the energy they receive in return, when GOs are exported via the AIB HUB. This is a prerequisite for a complete and reliable electricity disclosure scheme, and closes the loop for the HUB service.

At the same time, it is important to remember that Residual Mixes can be seen as an intermediary step towards a full disclosure system where all electricity disclosure is done through GOs. This is supported by AIB’s reflection paper. Indeed, if all electricity was explicitly tracked through GOs (as it is done in Austria), no residual mix would be needed – which would improve the reliability, accuracy, efficiency and credibility of the disclosure system.

2018 European Residual Mix

Revised results of the calculation of Residual Mixes for the calendar year 2018
Version 1.4, 2019-07-11


  • Most Greek data updated - small difference for residual mix, but a substantial difference for emissions.
  • Greece is a "Deficit country" when considering EAM, so this had no effect on the residual mixes of other countries.
  • Three additional calculation errors corrected:
    1. Cross-referencing error in calculation of (Attribute) Export pool averages per energy source;
    2. Norway values updated, due to error in earlier calculation; and
    3. For issuing-based method (IBM) calculation, EDCs from NO, PL & CH not properly accounted for.